##### An Explanation of P-Values and Statistical Significance

The p-value in statistics quantifies the evidence against a null hypothesis. A low p-value suggests data is inconsistent with the null, potentially favoring an alternative hypothesis. In a purchase and assumption transaction, the FDIC arranges the sale of a troubled or insolvent financial institution to a healthy one. Along with becoming the depository for personal checking, savings, and other insured accounts, the acquiring bank may buy other assets (such as loans or mortgages) of the failing bank as well.

## Alternatives to Purchase and Assumption (P&A)

- Specifically, assuming the null hypothesis is true, the p-value tells us the probability of obtaining an effect at least as large as the one we actually observed in the sample data.
- Insured depositors of the insolvent institution immediately become depositors of the assuming bank and have access to their insured funds.
- The p-value hypothesis test does not necessarily make use of a preselected confidence level at which the investor should reset the null hypothesis that the returns are equivalent.
- Typically for most statistical tests(but not always), alpha is set as 0.05.
- The company claims that this new battery will work for at least 10 minutes longer than the old battery.
- When an accountant « closes the books, » they endorse the relevant financial records.

She has worked in private industry as an accountant for law firms and for ITOCHU Corporation, an international conglomerate that manages over 20 subsidiaries and affiliates. Matos stays up to date on changes in the accounting industry through educational courses. When retained earnings (RE) are positive, they increase the organization’s equity. That equity may then be reinvested back into the business to fuel its future growth.

## What is a null hypothesis

- For example, you are researching a new pain medicine that is designed to last longer than the current commonly prescribed drug.
- For this reason, the two parameters d1 and d2 are also called the numerator and denominator degrees of freedom.
- Statistically significant p-value results can provide some of that evidence, which makes it important to know how to calculate p-values.
- However, in statistics one cannot speak of ‘probability’ without specifying a mechanism which generates the observed data.
- Along with becoming the depository for personal checking, savings, and other insured accounts, the acquiring bank may buy other assets (such as loans or mortgages) of the failing bank as well.
- Working capital defines the sum that remains after subtracting current liabilities from current assets.

You can pass in the formula itself as the first argument and call fit() to train the linear model. Let’s see an example of extracting the p-value with linear regression using the mtcars dataset. In this dataset the specifications of the vehicle and the mileage performance is recorded. It is a useful tool because it provides an objective standard for everyone to assess.

## p–value interpretation in regressions and correlations of observational data

Calculating p value helps you determine whether or not the results of your experiment are within a normal range. After you find the approximate p value for your experiment, you can decide whether you should reject or keep your null hypothesis. If the p value is below a certain predetermined amount (like, for instance, 0.05), you would want to reject the null hypothesis of the experiment. To see where those degrees of freedom come from, consider the independent random variables X and Y, which both follow the χ²-distributions with d1 and d2 degrees of freedom, respectively.

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## Treating p-values as likelihoods attached to hypotheses

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## How to implement common statistical significance tests and find the p value?

- Multiple vaccines for the virus which spread from China in late 2019 and early 2020 have been tested on tens of thousands of volunteers split randomly into two groups – one gets the vaccine and the other gets a placebo.
- EAs must earn licensure from the IRS by passing a three-part exam or accruing direct experience as an IRS employee.
- To obtain CPA licensure, a candidate must meet eligibility criteria and pass a demanding four-part standardized exam.
- Despite being so common, people often interpret p-values incorrectly, which can lead to errors when interpreting the findings from an analysis or a study.